Space

How Los Angeles is preparing for the air taxi takeoff

Comment

California To Cut Budget Spending Amid Deficits Worsened By Coronavirus
Image Credits: Patrick T. Fallon/Bloomberg via Getty Images / Getty Images

To help prepare Los Angeles for the new tech, a nonprofit organization spun out of LA Mayor Eric Garcetti’s office is working with air taxi developers and local residents to develop a policy toolkit in advance of commercial operations later this decade.

There’s a lot to be hammered out before then. Foremost, the aircraft must be certified with the Federal Aviation Administration — a mammoth task in and of itself. But even beyond aircraft certification, companies will also need to plan for infrastructure, namely vertiports, or where the air taxis will take off and land. And these come with real issues like noise pollution and zoning laws that have the potential to affect not only city residents but other transportation networks, too.

Urban Movement Labs was spun out of the mayor’s Office of Economic Development in 2020 to become a standalone 501c(3) nonprofit aimed at shaping the future of mobility in the city. This year, the organization commenced an urban air mobility (UAM) partnership with the mayor’s office and the Los Angeles Department of Transportation to drill down into how the city can integrate UAM into existing infrastructure and transportation networks in a way that maximizes equity and accessibility.

The partnership is being funded, in part, by Archer Aviation and Hyundai’s Urban Air Mobility division.

“We have a commitment from Hyundai and Archer to actually focus on assisting us in developing this policy toolkit,” Sam Morrissey, UML’s executive director, explained to TechCrunch in a recent interview. “That’s everything from the policies around where these vehicles will fly, the air routes, where these vehicles may land outside of commercial airports … and other related policies around planning for [vertiports].”

German UAM developer Volocopter joined as UML’s newest partner earlier this month.

“Our role is to really facilitate the new deployment of technology in Los Angeles,” Morrissey said. He added that the city wants to avoid the ex post facto scramble to regulate transportation technologies, like what happened after the launch of Uber, Lyft and scooter rental services.

“Particularly in 2016, when Uber Elevate started talking about flying taxis in cities, the city of Los Angeles said, ‘We need to have a separate entity that can help focus this.’”

The infrastructure challenge

UML fashions itself as a three-way bridge between the city, private industry and, most importantly, Los Angelenos. The three perspectives may not always align. The launch of electric air taxis, in particular, presents unique challenges that need to be solved, everything from fire risk and zoning issues to noise pollution and issues that cause disagreement among stakeholders.

Consider vertiports. While certifying the aircraft is solely in the jurisdiction of the FAA, “if you want to build new infrastructure on the ground, this is obviously a municipal and a city question,” Greg Bowles, Joby’s head of government affairs, explained to TechCrunch. “The way you want to use that, the access to that, the permitting, those are all municipal [issues].”

Morrissey said companies are primarily approaching route planning from a market standpoint — for example, looking at where people currently use Uber Black, the ride-sharing company’s premium service — while Urban Movement Labs wants to overlay that onto a regional-planning approach that accounts for how UAM would support existing transportation networks in the long term.

Siting and zoning laws are another issue. Beyond the easy-to-imagine NIMBYism that may crop up once potential vertiport sites are located, operational tempo, or flights per hour, could affect how many air taxi operators can use a given site.

While both Archer and Joby have announced private partnerships with REEF Technology to convert assets like parking garages into vertiport sites (and UML recognizes that these locations make a great deal of sense for a number of reasons), the city’s own regulations must still be accounted for before air taxis can start ferrying customers.

“Converting the roof of a parking structure sounds good, but you ultimately still need [the building and safety departments] to come in and say that this deck can support these aircraft, that the fire suppression needs are adequate enough,” Morrissey said.

A major question mark is whether and how many vertiports will be exclusive-use versus shared among the companies. One can imagine air taxi takeoff and landing sites like airport gates (homogenous and shared among all airlines) or more like gas stations (branded, competitive and offering different amenities). This, too, could be another potential point of contention between the city, its residents and the air taxi companies.

At least in the beginning, however, many companies may decide that working together — to set standards relating to noise and charging, for example — is the faster route to overall commercialization and adoption than working separately.

“We don’t really look at this as a competitive space,” Bowles said of Joby’s work on vertiport standards. “This is something we have to build, so we’re working with a lot of the other OEMs and future operators.”

Image Credits: Joby Aviation (opens in a new window)

The final question, of course, is the perennial one: Who’s going to pay for it?

“When we think about vertiports in the future, it’s going to be really a combination of who provides the capital to build and operate that vertiport, and a conversation with the city as far as who can access those vertiports and what the pros and cons might be to a community, of having open-access vertiports versus not open access,” Archer’s head of business development, Andrew Cummins, told TechCrunch in a recent interview.

Echoing Cummins, UML’s urban air mobility fellow, Clint Harper, said that while the city of Los Angeles has been clear about its preference for an “OEM-ambiguous” infrastructure, much of the final network will depend on whether vertiports are completely private enterprises or built through public-private partnerships. “They’re different funding models to bring infrastructure into reality,” he said. “Depending on what that funding model looks like, I think will tell us whether it’s going to be a multioperator type of facility or a single operator facility.”

Volocopter’s chief commercial officer, Christian Bauer, told TechCrunch it was the company’s viewpoint that “we need an open system” for all OEMs. “We do not want to invest into real estate,” he added.

Working with the city and beyond

Many of these questions are big and will likely take years to reconcile. In part, that’s because cities are still awaiting guidance from federal regulators. Harper told TechCrunch that UML is staying flexible as recommendations from the FAA, National Fire Protection Association and the International Code Council’s building code continue to evolve.

For their part, air taxi OEMs are also working at the federal level to provide input into developing policies. Archer, Joby and Volocopter are all also working with federal regulators and city municipalities.

Looking to the rest of the year and into next, UML said it’s reaching out to transportation advocacy groups, like pedestrian safety or cyclist organizations, as well as social issue groups that focus on things like homelessness, to understand how to plan for urban air mobility. Equity is particularly important in transportation planning in order to avoid repeating past mistakes: The Union of Concerned Scientists, for example, found that California’s people of color and low-income residents are disproportionately exposed to tailpipe emissions.

Much of the work on the city side is simply ensuring that relevant city departments are up to date on the latest developments with vertiports. Some of that comes down to ensuring the building and safety and fire departments, among others, can assign full-time staff to prepare for vertiports and new infrastructure.

Ultimately, Morrissey said UML is trying to be methodical.

“I think the reality is that these vehicles are coming, and we really want to do everything we can to plan for it but stay out of the hype cycle.”

Correction: the original article mistakenly identified Joby Aviation as a partner with Urban Movement Labs. The company has never been a partner according to the organization. We regret the error. 

More TechCrunch

Dating app maker Bumble has acquired Geneva, an online platform built around forming real-world groups and clubs. The company said that the deal is designed to help it expand its…

Bumble buys community building app Geneva to expand further into friendships

CyberArk — one of the army of larger security companies founded out of Israel — is acquiring Venafi, a specialist in machine identity, for $1.54 billion. 

CyberArk snaps up Venafi for $1.54B to ramp up in machine-to-machine security

Founder-market fit is one of the most crucial factors in a startup’s success, and operators (someone involved in the day-to-day operations of a startup) turned founders have an almost unfair advantage…

OpenseedVC, which backs operators in Africa and Europe starting their companies, reaches first close of $10M fund

A Singapore High Court has effectively approved Pine Labs’ request to shift its operations to India.

Pine Labs gets Singapore court approval to shift base to India

The AI Safety Institute, a U.K. body that aims to assess and address risks in AI platforms, has said it will open a second location in San Francisco. 

UK opens office in San Francisco to tackle AI risk

Companies are always looking for an edge, and searching for ways to encourage their employees to innovate. One way to do that is by running an internal hackathon around a…

Why companies are turning to internal hackathons

Featured Article

I’m rooting for Melinda French Gates to fix tech’s broken ‘brilliant jerk’ culture

Women in tech still face a shocking level of mistreatment at work. Melinda French Gates is one of the few working to change that.

22 hours ago
I’m rooting for Melinda French Gates to fix tech’s  broken ‘brilliant jerk’ culture

Blue Origin has successfully completed its NS-25 mission, resuming crewed flights for the first time in nearly two years. The mission brought six tourist crew members to the edge of…

Blue Origin successfully launches its first crewed mission since 2022

Creative Artists Agency (CAA), one of the top entertainment and sports talent agencies, is hoping to be at the forefront of AI protection services for celebrities in Hollywood. With many…

Hollywood agency CAA aims to help stars manage their own AI likenesses

Expedia says Rathi Murthy and Sreenivas Rachamadugu, respectively its CTO and senior vice president of core services product & engineering, are no longer employed at the travel booking company. In…

Expedia says two execs dismissed after ‘violation of company policy’

Welcome back to TechCrunch’s Week in Review. This week had two major events from OpenAI and Google. OpenAI’s spring update event saw the reveal of its new model, GPT-4o, which…

OpenAI and Google lay out their competing AI visions

When Jeffrey Wang posted to X asking if anyone wanted to go in on an order of fancy-but-affordable office nap pods, he didn’t expect the post to go viral.

With AI startups booming, nap pods and Silicon Valley hustle culture are back

OpenAI’s Superalignment team, responsible for developing ways to govern and steer “superintelligent” AI systems, was promised 20% of the company’s compute resources, according to a person from that team. But…

OpenAI created a team to control ‘superintelligent’ AI — then let it wither, source says

A new crop of early-stage startups — along with some recent VC investments — illustrates a niche emerging in the autonomous vehicle technology sector. Unlike the companies bringing robotaxis to…

VCs and the military are fueling self-driving startups that don’t need roads

When the founders of Sagetap, Sahil Khanna and Kevin Hughes, started working at early-stage enterprise software startups, they were surprised to find that the companies they worked at were trying…

Deal Dive: Sagetap looks to bring enterprise software sales into the 21st century

Keeping up with an industry as fast-moving as AI is a tall order. So until an AI can do it for you, here’s a handy roundup of recent stories in the world…

This Week in AI: OpenAI moves away from safety

After Apple loosened its App Store guidelines to permit game emulators, the retro game emulator Delta — an app 10 years in the making — hit the top of the…

Adobe comes after indie game emulator Delta for copying its logo

Meta is once again taking on its competitors by developing a feature that borrows concepts from others — in this case, BeReal and Snapchat. The company is developing a feature…

Meta’s latest experiment borrows from BeReal’s and Snapchat’s core ideas

Welcome to Startups Weekly! We’ve been drowning in AI news this week, with Google’s I/O setting the pace. And Elon Musk rages against the machine.

Startups Weekly: It’s the dawning of the age of AI — plus,  Musk is raging against the machine

IndieBio’s Bay Area incubator is about to debut its 15th cohort of biotech startups. We took special note of a few, which were making some major, bordering on ludicrous, claims…

IndieBio’s SF incubator lineup is making some wild biotech promises

YouTube TV has announced that its multiview feature for watching four streams at once is now available on Android phones and tablets. The Android launch comes two months after YouTube…

YouTube TV’s ‘multiview’ feature is now available on Android phones and tablets

Featured Article

Two Santa Cruz students uncover security bug that could let millions do their laundry for free

CSC ServiceWorks provides laundry machines to thousands of residential homes and universities, but the company ignored requests to fix a security bug.

3 days ago
Two Santa Cruz students uncover security bug that could let millions do their laundry for free

TechCrunch Disrupt 2024 is just around the corner, and the buzz is palpable. But what if we told you there’s a chance for you to not just attend, but also…

Harness the TechCrunch Effect: Host a Side Event at Disrupt 2024

Decks are all about telling a compelling story and Goodcarbon does a good job on that front. But there’s important information missing too.

Pitch Deck Teardown: Goodcarbon’s $5.5M seed deck

Slack is making it difficult for its customers if they want the company to stop using its data for model training.

Slack under attack over sneaky AI training policy

A Texas-based company that provides health insurance and benefit plans disclosed a data breach affecting almost 2.5 million people, some of whom had their Social Security number stolen. WebTPA said…

Healthcare company WebTPA discloses breach affecting 2.5 million people

Featured Article

Microsoft dodges UK antitrust scrutiny over its Mistral AI stake

Microsoft won’t be facing antitrust scrutiny in the U.K. over its recent investment into French AI startup Mistral AI.

3 days ago
Microsoft dodges UK antitrust scrutiny over its Mistral AI stake

Ember has partnered with HSBC in the U.K. so that the bank’s business customers can access Ember’s services from their online accounts.

Embedded finance is still trendy as accounting automation startup Ember partners with HSBC UK

Kudos uses AI to figure out consumer spending habits so it can then provide more personalized financial advice, like maximizing rewards and utilizing credit effectively.

Kudos lands $10M for an AI smart wallet that picks the best credit card for purchases

The EU’s warning comes after Microsoft failed to respond to a legally binding request for information that focused on its generative AI tools.

EU warns Microsoft it could be fined billions over missing GenAI risk info