Our own Dave Freeman wrote up a nice little primer for astrophotography a while back, but some of you may prefer your learning in video form, and this one, by photographer Ben Canales, is a good place to start.
I wasn’t aware of the “rule of 600” thing, where you divide your lens’s focal length into 600 to determine the maximum exposure length. Good to know! It helps to have a high-ISO capable camera as well, but it’s not necessary — I’ve gotten perfectly clear stars with my old Rebel XSi.
I’ll be heading up into the country in a month or so, and will definitely put some of these tips into practice. If you’ve got a tripod and can spend an hour or two outside where you are, you should try it as well.